Foam, Rigid foam, Flexible foam, Spray foam, car seats, steering wheel, instrument panel, polyetherol, automotive

Bakelite® Products for Polyurethane

Resonance™ Polyols- a unique alternative to conventional polyols

Bakelite’s Resonance™ aromatic polyols are built on the foundation of a phenolic core, known for its exceptional Fire, Smoke, and Toxicity properties. These polyols combine the attributes of aromatic polyesters and aliphatic polyether polyols in their significantly higher aromaticity and range of functionality, as well as their superior hydrolytic and chemical resistance. Due to their structural similarity, these polyols are naturally compatible with isocyanates and influence cell morphology.

Resonance™ polyols are designed to improve performance in various polyurethane applications and are ideally suited for Rigid polyurethanes, PUR, and PIR, influencing both mechanical properties and reaction-to-fire (RTF). They are also used in flexible foams and CASE applications, particularly in Sealants and Elastomers; spray polyurethane foams and one and two component foams; sandwich panels; and slabstock.

Some of the key benefits of incorporating these aromatic polyols include the following:

  • Improved reaction to fire resulting in better fire ratings
  • Reduction in fire retardants
  • Improved compressive strength
  • Compatibility with common polyols, fire retardants, blowing agents and isocyanates
  • Finer cell structure resulting in improved thermal insulation
  • Physical and chemical compatibility with HFO resulting in better shelf life of the Part B
  • Reduction in emissive catalysts leading to less VOC and odor, and improved HFO stability
  • Improved chemical resistance, particularly towards, moisture and acid.
  • Lower exotherm during cure
  • Improved adhesion to substrates

The Resonance™ aromatic polyol portfolio will help you address regulatory needs while meeting processing and performance requirements for your PUR and PIR formulations. 

Adding 10% of Resonance™ TF94-806 Aromatic Triazine Polyol to a sugar polyetherol significantly reduces flame propagation and smoke of a PUR Rigid Foam.

Resonance™ Aromatic Polyols

With a functionality matching that of sugar-based polyols and aromaticity higher than 75%, these polyols cross-link through phenolic hydroxyls resulting in lower exotherm during cure, which results in less charring, and improved productivity. In addition, their structural similarity to isocyanates makes them uniquely positioned to have a high degree of compatibility and rigidity, resulting in finer cell structure, higher compressive strength, better thermal resistance, and dimensional stability. Replacement of aliphatic polyetherols, including sugar-based polyols, improves the fire performance of the foams.

Our aromatic triazine polyol is novel to the industry with its 21% nitrogen and nearly 80% aromaticity. These attributes make them autocatalytic with fire-retardant properties. Replacing 10% sugar-based polyols with the triazine material improves reaction-to-fire and reduces emissive catalysts. Reduction in amine catalysts, particularly in spray foams, leads to improved HFO stability and enhanced shelf life of Part B. They can also reduce flame retardants without sacrificing fire performance. With the reduction in emissions and harmful flame retardants, these polyols contribute to more eco-friendly foams.  

Resonance™ aromatic triazine polyols can be solubilized effectively at 10-20% by weight at elevated temperatures in common polyols, resulting in stable blends at room temperature. These blends can then replace the traditional polyol with an overall improvement in foam properties. For example, a sugar-based polyol with 10% of the aromatic triazine polyol can replace all the sugar-based polyol in the formulation resulting in significantly improved reaction-to-fire and reduction in emissive catalysts while maintaining or exceeding mechanical properties and thermal insulation. 

Resonance™ Aromatic Polyether Polyols (polyetherols)     

Our aromatic polyetherols can reduce the dependency on aliphatic polyetherols, including sugar-based polyols and aromatic polyesters, for mechanical properties and fire performance. The aromaticity, functionality, and hydroxyl equivalent weight of the Resonance™ polyetherols are 17-38%, 2.4-3.0, and 130-450 g/OH, respectively. With such a wide range of properties, Resonance™ portfolio offers polyols for myriad applications from rigid foam to elastomers. 

Since they all have a phenolic core, these aromatic polyetherols retain flame-retarding characteristics and have excellent heat and chemical resistance. The two workhorses, Resonance™ PL91-205 and PL91-203, are ideally suited for rigid PUR and PIR foams. They have been shown to replace polyether polyols, including sugar-based, and partially replace aromatic polyesters resulting in less flame spread and smoke in PUR and PIR foams. These polyols are helping customers pass stringent fire tests such as E84 and EN 13823 (SBI test). In addition, due to its lower functionality, Resonance™ PL91-203 finds use in Cast Elastomers, providing improved thermal performance and mechanical properties. They can also reduce a significant amount of flame retardants without sacrificing fire performance.

The aromatic polyetherols with lower hydroxyl numbers, such as Resonance™ PL91-507, are designed for rigid, semi-rigid, and flexible foams. Due to their optimal balance of hydrophobic and higher hydrophilic groups, they are particularly suited for water-blown, open-cell rigid foams, providing finer cell structure and improved mechanicals while achieving the desired fire ratings.

All the Resonance™ aromatic polyetherols are readily miscible with other polyols, fire-retardants, and blowing agents. They are also chemically compatible with hydrofluoroolefins (HFO) which results in the improved shelf life of the polyol B-side, a critical factor in PU spray foam.


Resonance™ Aromatic Polyether Polyols
Aromatic Triazine Polyol- a Novel Reactive Flame Retardant For Rigid Polyurethane Foam
A Fundamental Study on the Effect of Chain Length, Functionality and Aromaticity of the Aromatic Polyetherols in Rigid Polyurethane Foams

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Michael Stahl

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Gaye Haas

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Heike Haas

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